Halcyon Eco

The Environmental Impact of Vegetable Oils​

Our Environmental Strategy

Our Environmental Strategy

We are committed to minimising the impact of vegetable oil production on the environment and supporting those who are working to improve global environmental sustainability.

  • More land is devoted to growing vegetable oil crops than all fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, roots and tubers combined.
  • 2 of the top 3 drivers of global deforestation are vegetable oil crops.
  • Vegetable oils emit more greenhouse gases per kilogram than any other major crop.
  • Vegetable oils account for 20-30% of global crop lands, but deliver less than 0.01% of the world’s nutrients.

CO₂ emissions from vegetable oil crops are as much as 5–25 times higher than most other agricultural crops. Both Rapeseed and sunflower oil are in the top five.

High emission crops are defined here as greater than 3 kg CO₂-equivalent per kg food product and high land use crops as greater than 3 square meters of land use per kg of food product. Vegetable oils account for up to 30% of global crop lands, but deliver less than 0.01% of the world’s important nutrients.

1. What damage does carbon do in the atmosphere

Carbon, specifically carbon dioxide (CO2), is a greenhouse gas that contributes to global climate change. When CO2 is released into the atmosphere through human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and land-use changes, it traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere and contributes to the warming of the planet. This warming effect leads to a range of negative impacts on the environment and human societies, including:

  1. Increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and droughts.
  2. Rising sea levels due to the melting of glaciers and polar ice caps, which can lead to flooding and displacement of coastal populations.
  3. Changes in ecosystems and loss of biodiversity as species are forced to adapt or migrate to new habitats.
  4. Impacts on human health due to increased air pollution and the spread of disease-carrying insects.
  5. Economic impacts such as reduced crop yields, damage to infrastructure, and increased costs associated with adapting to and mitigating the impacts of climate change.

The long-term impacts of carbon emissions on the Earth’s climate system are difficult to predict with certainty, but the scientific consensus is that continued emissions of greenhouse gases will lead to increasingly severe and potentially irreversible impacts on the environment and human societies.

2. How much carbon enters the atmosphere every year

According to the Global Carbon Project, which provides annual estimates of global carbon emissions, it is estimated that approximately 40.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) entered the atmosphere in 2021. This includes emissions from burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, as well as emissions from land-use changes such as deforestation and forest degradation.

It’s important to note that while CO2 is the most significant greenhouse gas in terms of its contribution to climate change, other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide also contribute to warming of the atmosphere. Therefore, the total amount of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere each year is higher than just the amount of carbon dioxide emitted.

3. How much vegetable oil is used globally

It is difficult to provide an exact estimate of how much vegetable oil is used globally as the usage varies greatly across different regions and industries. However, according to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), global vegetable oil production for the marketing year 2021/2022 (October-September) is projected to be around 223 million metric tons. This includes various vegetable oils such as soybean, palm, canola, sunflower, and others.

Vegetable oils are used for a wide range of purposes, including cooking, food processing, and biofuels. They are also used in various non-food applications such as cosmetics, lubricants, and soaps. The largest consumers of vegetable oils are the food and biofuel industries, followed by the chemical and cosmetic industries.

4. How much Carbon does the production of vegetable oil create annually

The amount of carbon emitted during the production of vegetable oil can vary depending on several factors such as the type of oil, the production method, and the energy sources used in the production process.

However, a study by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated that the average carbon footprint of vegetable oil production is approximately 3.5 kg CO2-equivalent per kilogram of oil produced.    

Based on the USDA’s estimate of global vegetable oil production of around 223 million metric tons in 2021/2022, the production of vegetable oil would create approximately 780 million metric tons of CO2-equivalent annually. It’s important to note that this is just an estimate, and the actual carbon footprint of vegetable oil production can vary depending on a number of factors as mentioned earlier.

5. How much vegetable oil is used in Ireland

According to a report published by Bord Bia (the Irish Food Board) in 2020, vegetable oils are one of the most used cooking oils in Ireland.

The report states that the total consumption of edible oils and fats in Ireland in 2019 was approximately 165,000 tonnes, which includes all types of oils and fats, not just vegetable oil.

6. How much carbon does 1 ton of vegetable oil generate

The carbon footprint of 1 ton of vegetable oil can vary depending on various factors, such as the production method, transportation, and processing.

However, in general, the carbon footprint of 1 ton of vegetable oil is estimated to be around 3.05 metric tons of CO2 equivalent (MT CO2e) according to the US EPA’s Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator. This calculation includes the emissions generated during the entire lifecycle of the vegetable oil, including production, transportation, processing, and distribution.

It’s worth noting that the carbon footprint of vegetable oil can be lower than that of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, as vegetable oil is a renewable resource that can be produced from plants that absorb carbon dioxide during their growth. However, the production and processing of vegetable oil still generate emissions, and the carbon footprint can vary depending on the specific practices and supply chains involved.

7. How much carbon does Ireland generate annually

According to the latest available data from the International Energy Agency (IEA), Ireland generated approximately 33.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels in 2019. However, this figure may not capture all of Ireland’s carbon emissions, as it excludes emissions from other sources such as agriculture, land use, and forestry.

It’s worth noting that Ireland, like many other countries, has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions in line with the Paris Agreement on climate change. The Irish government has set a target of reducing its emissions by at least 51% by 2030 compared to 2018 levels. To achieve this target, Ireland will need to significantly ramp up its efforts to reduce its carbon footprint across all sectors of the economy.

8. How much carbon would Ireland save if it reduced it consumption of vegetable oil by 60%

It is difficult to provide an exact estimate of how much carbon Ireland would save if it reduced its consumption of vegetable oil by 60% without more specific information. However, I can provide a rough estimate based on some assumptions.

Assuming that Ireland’s current consumption of vegetable oil is representative of its total consumption of fats and oils, and that the carbon footprint of vegetable oil is similar to other vegetable oils such as soybean or rapeseed oil, we can estimate the carbon savings as follows:

According to the European Commission, the average carbon footprint of vegetable oil production is around 3.5 kg CO2e per kg of oil produced. If we assume that Ireland’s current consumption of vegetable oil is approximately 100,000 tonnes per year, then the total carbon emissions associated with its consumption of vegetable oil would be:

160,000 tonnes * 3.5 kg CO2e/kg = 560,000 tonnes CO2e

If Ireland were to reduce its consumption of vegetable oil by 60%, it would save approximately:

0.6 * 560,000 tonnes CO2e = 336,000 tonnes CO2e

This is a rough estimate, and the actual carbon savings could be higher or lower depending on a variety of factors such as the specific types of oils consumed, and the methods used to produce them. However, it does give a general idea of the potential impact of reducing Ireland’s consumption of vegetable oil.

9. Below shows a graph of waste oil produced world-wide

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